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Arhive pe etichete: Cluj-Napoca

01Cluj-Napoca, Romania (by Marius Gatea)

Photo by Marius Gatea.

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10407315_719643711454795_8413502199096696264_nThe Church of Saint Michael is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic church in Cluj-Napoca. It is the second largest church (after the Black Church of Brașov) in the geographical region of Transylvania, Romania. The nave is 50 meters long and 24 meters wide, the apse is 20×10 m. The tower with its height of 76 meter (80 meter including the cross) is the highest one in Transylvania. The western portal is decorated with the three coats of arms of Sigismund as King of Hungary, as King of Bohemia and as Holy Roman Emperor.The construction was begun probably in place of the Saint James Chapel. The financing of the church was partly done by the citizens, partly from the income of indulgences. (The first related document from 1349, signed by the archbishop of Avignon and fifteen other bishops grants the indulgence for those contributing to the illumination and furniture of the Saint Michael Church.) The construction was completed between 1442-1447, the old tower was built between 1511-1545. The tower that stands today was erected in 1862.


99397143The Blue Lagoon, one of the country’s most beautiful natural lakes, lies hidden behind vast sand dunes in the vecinity of Aghires. The site used to be a kaolin pit.The hollow pit got filled up with rainwater. The surrounding sandy soil is the work of rainwater creeks. It is believed that in the 90s fish still populated this water, painted blue by the substances used for kaolin extraction. Later, due to some work in progress the lake dryed out. Fortunatelly the water ponded again and the shore was populated by reed.
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Teatrul National, Cluj-NapocaThe Lucian Blaga National Theatre in Cluj-Napoca, Romania is one of the most prestigious theatrical institutions in Romania. The theatre shares the same building with the Romanian Opera.The theatre was built between 1904 and 1906 by the famous Austrian architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer who designed several theatres and palaces across Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century, including the theatres in Iaşi, Oradea, Timişoara and Chernivtsi.The project was financed using only private capital. The theatre opened on 8 September 1906 with Ferenc Herczeg’s Bujdosók and until 1919, as Cluj was part of the Kingdom of Hungary, it was home to the local Hungarian National Theatre (Hungarian: Nemzeti Színház). The last performance of the Hungarian troupe was held on September 30, 1919 and presented Shakespeare’s Hamlet: „Horatio, I am dead; / Thou livest; report me and my cause aright / To the unsatisfied.”Since 1919, the building has been home to the local Romanian National Theatre and Romanian Opera, while the local Hungarian Theatre and Opera received the theatre building in Emil Isac street, close to the Central Park and Someşul Mic River.After the Second Vienna Award the building was again the home of the Hungarian Theatre. On 31 October 1944 the Romanian and Hungarian actors celebrating the freedom of the city held a common performance, the revenue being donated to the Russian and Romanian wounded soldiers.


Cluj Napoca- -RomaniaCluj-Napoca, commonly known as Cluj, is the second most populous city in Romania,behind the national capital Bucharest, and is the seat of Cluj County in the northwestern part of the country. Geographically, it is roughly equidistant from Bucharest (324 km), Budapest (351 km) and Belgrade (322 km). Located in the Someşul Mic River valley, the city is considered the unofficial capital to the historical province of Transylvania. Between 1790 and 1848 and between 1861 and 1867, it was the official capital of the Grand Principality of Transylvania.The city spreads out from St. Michael’s Church in Unirii Square, built in the 14th century and named after the Archangel Michael, the patron saint of Cluj-Napoca.The boundaries of the municipality contain an area of 179.52 square kilometres . An analysis undertaken by the real estate agency Profesional Casa indicates that, because of infrastructure development, communes such as Feleacu, Vâlcele, Mărtineşti, Jucu and Baciu will eventually become neighbourhoods of the city, thereby enlarging its area.
Cluj-Napoca experienced a decade of decline during the 1990s, its international reputation suffering from the policies of its mayor of the time, Gheorghe Funar.Today, the city is one of the most important academic, cultural, industrial and business centres in Romania. Among other institutions, it hosts the country’s largest university, Babeş-Bolyai University, with its famous botanical garden; nationally renowned cultural institutions; as well as the largest Romanian-owned commercial bank.
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This city was on the site of  pre-Roman settlement named Napoca. After the AD 106 Roman conquest of the area, the place was known as Municipium Aelium Hadrianum Napoca. Possible etymologies for Napoca or Napuca include the names of some Dacian tribes such as the Naparis or Napaei, the Greek term napos , meaning „timbered valley” or the Indo-European root , „to flow, to swim, damp”.
The first written mention of the city’s current name,as a Royal Borough was in 1213 under the Latin name Castrum Clus.Despite the fact that Clus as a county name was recorded in the 1173 document Thomas comes Clusiensis,it is believed that the county’s designation derives from the name of the castrum, which might have existed prior to its first mention in 1213, and not vice versa.With respect to the name of this camp, it is widely accepted as a derivation from the Latin term clausa – clusa, meaning „closed place”, „strait”, „ravine”.Similar senses are attributed to the Slavic term kluč] and the German Klause – Kluse (meaning mountain pass or weir).The Hungarian form, first recorded in 1246 as Kulusuar, underwent various phonetic changes over the years ; the variant Koloswar first appears in a document from 1332.Its Saxon name Clusenburg/Clusenbvrg appeared in 1348, but from 1408 the form Clausenburg was used.The Romanian name of the city used to be spelled alternately as Cluj or Cluş,the latter being the case in Mihai Eminescu’s Poesis. In 1974, the Romanian Communist authorities added „-Napoca” back to the city’s name as a nationalist gesture, emphasising its pre-Roman roots.
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